The most common type of polyp or growth, typically benign and of glandular structure1.
Treatment received after the main form of treatment to lower the risk of the cancer coming back.
The growth of new capillary blood vessels from existing blood vessels.
Drugs designed to target and interfere with the tumor blood supply, ultimately starving cancer cells.
Treatment that controls disease by stopping new abnormal blood vessels from forming.
Treatment that targets epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.
Treatment designed to reduce function of VEGF, which causes new blood vessels to form.
Condition when cancer cells are unable to grow and ultimately self-destruct.
Common test used to diagnose colorectal cancer using x-rays and dye to visualize the colon on a film.
Non-cancerous tissue that lacks the ability to spread to other parts of the body.
A fully humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It is an antiangiogenic agent that is injected slowly as a liquid intravenously (into a vein).2
A characteristic of a certain cancer type that can help make decisions about which treatments should be used.3
A combination of Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine, which is taken orally for 14 days and repeated every 3 weeks.
An antimetabolite chemotherapy agent that is taken orally, in pill form.5
A monoclonal antibody that targets endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is a liquid that is injected slowly intravenously (into a vein).6
The use of chemical agents (i.e. drugs) to treat or control cancer by attacking cancer cells5
Medical study with human volunteers to test, assess and compare the safety and efficacy of treatments
Surgery performed to remove part of the colon.
The first four to five feet of the large intestine.
Thin, long tube with a light and camera that is used to examine the inner wall of the colon and rectum.
A procedure in which a gastroenterologist examines the inner lining of the colon and rectum for colorectal cancer by inserting a colonoscope through the rectum.8
A procedure post-surgery in which the colon is rerouted to an opening in the abdomen called a stoma.9
The use of two or more drugs/therapies to treat a condition more aggressively.
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)
A small protein that stimulates cell growth, proliferation and differentiation by binding to its receptor on the cell surface.10
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)
A cell surface receptor of endothelial growth factor (EGF) that is often over-expressed on cancer cells and contributes to tumor development and growth.
Cells that line the cavities or surfaces of organs11
A liquid antimetabolite chemotherapy agent that is injected intra-arterially (into an artery).13
A liquid antimetabolite chemotherapy agent that is injected intravenously (into a vein).12
A combination of Irinotecan, Leucovorin and 5-FU. It is injected intravenously and is repeated every 2 weeks.
A combination of Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin and 5-FU. It is injected intravenously continuous infusion and is repeated every 2 weeks.
Irinotecan (Camptosar®) is a liquid topoisomerase I inhibitor chemotherapy agent that is injected intravenously (into a vein).14
(Pronounced kay-rass) A biomarker gene that is often mutated in CRC. Its mutation status determines the kind of treatment a patient would respond to best.15
Leucovorin is a folic acid analog that works by increasing the effects of 5-fluorouracil. Leucovorin comes as a liquid and is injected intravenously or into a muscle.16
A folic acid analog that works by increasing the effects of 5-fluorouracil. Leucovorin comes as a liquid and is injected intravenously.17
Line of Therapy
A sequence of treatment that ensues when one line of therapy is ineffective.
Small structures connected by lymph vessels in which immune cells can filter harmful substances and help fight infections.18
Thin tubes, similar to blood vessels, that transport fluid containing various cell types and debris throughout the body.19
The ability of cancer cells to invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
The spread of cancer to other parts of the body.20
A modified combination of Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin and 5-FU. It is injected intravenously continuous infusion and is repeated every 2 weeks.
The tissue around the cancer/tumor.
Treatment that is given initially to facilitate the main therapy. This may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or hormone therapy given before surgery to shrink a tumor so that it is easier to remove.21
A liquid platinum-containing chemotherapy that is injected intravenously.22
A monoclonal antibody that targets endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is injected slowly as a liquid (into a vein).23
A tissue growth in the inner lining of the colon or rectum that is benign (non-cancerous) but can become cancerous.
Original tumor; tumor from which cancer originates.
Therapy that kills cancer cells with high-energy rays
The last seven inches of the large intestine
When cancer returns after a period of time when no cancer could be detected.
An oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor of angiogenic (VEGFR-1/3, TIE-2), stromal (PDGFR-ß, FGFR1), and oncogenic kinases (KIT, RET, BRAF). It is given as a pill.24
When cancer returns after initially responding to therapy.
Any factor that affects your chance of getting a disease16
A type of polyp that has a saw-like shape and is typically benign
The process doctors use to identify the extent and location of the cancer, including whether it has spread to other areas in the body
An opening that is created in the abdomen for the excretion of stool in cases where reconnecting the healthy sections of the colon and rectum is not possible
Treatment that travels throughout the entire body.
Therapy that is designed to attack specific cell pathways used by cancer to grow and survive
The most common system used to identify the stage of CRC17 using information about the size and extent of the cancer
An abnormal tissue growth that may be either benign or malignant and arises from uncontrolled proliferation of cells18
Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor
Therapy that targets a wide range of cell signals important to colorectal cancer, angiogenesis and supporting cells in the tumor environment.19
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)
Protein that causes new, abnormal blood vessels to form through the process of angiogenesis
Test that uses multiple CT images to create a picture of the inner walls of the colon
A fusion protein made from the VEGF-binding domains from VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 linked to the Fc portion of IgG, which binds VEGF-A, VEGF-B and PlGF and prevents their interaction with VEGFR-1 and -2. It is an antiangiogenic agent that is injected slowly as a liquid intravenously (into a vein).29